Discrimination of lamb (Ovis aries), emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), camel (Camelus dromedarius) and beef (Bos taurus) binary mixtures using a portable near infrared instrument combined with chemometrics
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Consumers demand safe and nutritious foods at accessible prices; where issues associated with adulteration, fraud, and provenance have become important aspects to be considered by the modern food industry. There are many analytical techniques and methods available to determine food composition and quality, including food security. Among them, vibrational spectroscopy techniques are at the first line of defence (near and mid infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy). In this study, a portable near infrared (NIR) instrument was evaluated to identify different levels of adulteration between binary mixtures of exotic and traditional meat species. Fresh meat cuts of lamb (Ovis aries), emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), camel (Camelus dromedarius) and beef (Bos taurus) sourced from a commercial abattoir were used to make different binary mixtures (95 % %w/w, 90 % %w/w, 50 % %w/w, 10 % %w/w and 5 % %w/w) and analysed using a portable NIR instrument. The NIR spectra of the meat mixtures was analysed using principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Two isosbestic points corresponding to absorbances at 1028 nm and 1224 nm were found to be consistent across all the binary mixtures analysed. The coefficient of determination in cross validation (R2) obtained for the determination of the per cent of species in a binary mixture was above 90 % with a standard error in cross validation (SECV) ranging between 12.6 and 15 %w/w. Overall, the results of this study indicate that NIR spectroscopy can determine the level or ratio of adulteration in the binary mixtures of minced meat.
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