Testosterone and estradiol concentrations in serum, velvet skin, and growing antler bone of male white-tailed deer
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The growth and mineralization of antlers correlate with the seasonal variation of serum androgens. Whereas seasonal levels of testosterone (T) in plasma are well established, steroid concentrations have not yet been determined in the tissues of growing antlers. Therefore, RIA was used to determine T and 17b estradiol (E2) in serum, and three areas (tip, middle, and base) of the antler bone and the antler skin, called velvet. Blood and antler tissues of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were collected from May to August. The difference between levels of T and E2 among the sites was calculated using the square root transformation followed by a mixed model analysis with individual deer and an interaction of individual and year (individualnyear) as a random factor.
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