Vascular Remodeling of Clinically Used Patches and Decellularized Pericardial Matrices Recellularized with Autologous or Allogeneic Cells in a Porcine Carotid Artery Model
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Background: Cardiovascular surgery is confronted by a lack of suitable materials for patch repair. Acellular animal tissues serve as an abundant source of promising biomaterials. The aim of our study was to explore the bio-integration of decellularized or recellularized pericardial atrices in vivo. Methods: Porcine (allograft) and ovine (heterograft, xenograft) pericardia were decellularized using 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate ((1) Allo-decel and (2) Xeno- decel). We used two cell types for pressure-stimulated recellularization in a bioreactor: autologous adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) isolated from subcutaneous fat of pigs ((3) Allo-ASC and (4) Xeno-ASC) and allogeneic Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJCs) ((5) Allo-WJC and (6) Xeno-WJC). These six experimental patches were implanted in porcine carotid arteries for one month. For comparison, we also implanted six types of control patches, namely, arterial or venous autografts, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE Propaten® Gore®), polyethylene terephthalate (PET Vascutek®), chemically stabilized bovine pericardium (XenoSure®), and detoxified porcine pericardium (BioIntegral® No- React®). The grafts were evaluated through the use of flowmetry, angiography, and histological examination. Results: All grafts were well-integrated and patent with no signs of thrombosis, stenosis, or aneurysm. A histological analysis revealed that the arterial autograft resembled a native artery. All other control and experimental patches developed neo-adventitial inflammation (NAI) and neo-intimal hyperplasia (NIH), and the endothelial lining was present. NAI and NIH were most prominent on XenoSure® and Xeno-decel and least prominent on NoReact®. In xenografts, the degree of NIH developed in the following order: Xeno-decel > Xeno-ASC > Xeno-WJC. NAI and patch resorption increased in Allo-ASC and Xeno-ASC and decreased in Allo-WJC and Xeno-WJC.
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