Same place, different time, head up: Multiple antipredator responses to a recolonizing apex predator

ESATTORE, Bruno, ROSSI, Agnese Carlotta, BAZZONI, Francesco, RIGGIO, Chiara, OLIVEIRA, Raquel, LEGGIERO, Ivan a FERRETTI, Francesco. Same place, different time, head up: Multiple antipredator responses to a recolonizing apex predator. Current Zoology, 2023, 69, 703-717. ISSN 1674-5507.
Kateg. publikaceVědecké publikace impaktované
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Prey adjust their antipredator behavioral tactics to minimize the risk of an encounter with predators. Spatiotemporal responses of prey to predators have been reported, but the nature of antipredator response is not ubiquitous and it is the object of increasing interest, especially considering the recent recovery of large carnivores in Europe, and the potential for behavioral antipredator responses to elicit consequences at the ecosystem level. We have tested multiple antipredator responses by fallow deer Dama dama to wolf Canis lupus in a Mediterranean protected area recently recolonized by this apex predator. Through intensive camera trapping, we tested for temporal and spatial association between predator and prey, and we have also studied deer vigilance in forest habitats where focal observations are usually impossible. Wolf detection rates were spatially associated with those of fallow deer. Accordingly, no evidence was found for fallow deer avoiding sites with higher predator detection rates. Temporal activity patterns were significantly different between the 2 species, with the wolf being mainly nocturnal whereas fallow deer was active especially during daylight. A comparison with a preliminary study strongly suggests an increase in the diurnal activity of fallow deer along with the stabilization of wolf presence in the area. Both the rate and the duration of vigilance of female fallow deer increased with the local frequency of wolf activity. We suggest an antipredator response based on temporal-rather than spatial-avoidance, as well as increased vigilance.

ProjektDlouhodobý koncepční rozvoj výzkumné organizace

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