Antipredator responses of fallow deer to the wolf in a mediterranean area
Prey are expected to adopt behavioural tactics to minimise the risk of an encounter with predators. Among these tactics (e.g., increased vigilance, increased group size, spatial and temporal avoidance), spatial avoidance has been reported especially in large and relatively undisturbed protected areas. However, actual antipredator responses may not be consistent across studies. Moreover, prey responses to predators are object of increasing interest, especially considering the recent recovery of large carnivores in Europe, and the alleged potential for behavioural antipredator responses to trigger consequences at the ekosystém level.
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