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Institute of Animal Science (IAS) Prague – Uhříněves is a public research institution founded by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic.
Since its foundation in 1951, the Institute has been a centre of research into biological and bio-technological basis of animal science.
IAS carries out basic and applied research focusing on innovation and the practical use of knowledge in animal science. Eight research departments perform research in the fields of animal genetics and breeding, bio-technology and reproduction, nutrition, quality of products, animal ethology and welfare, breeding technology, herd management and production economy.
In addition to basic and applied research, IAS carries out other expert activities. One of the most significant is the implementation of the National Programme for Conservation and Utilization of Farm Animal Genetic Resources. In 2016, the IAS was appointed as the National Centre for Genetic Resources to coordinate and implement the National Programme, along with many stakeholders. The Institute has also provided for the activity of the Scientific Committee for Animal Nutrition and was entrusted by the Ministry of Agriculture to represent the Czech Republic in the European Federation of Animal Science (EAAP). IAS provides professional training on classification of swine and cattle carcasses according to SEUROP, under a contract with the Ministry of Agriculture.
The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo potential of a specific commercial blend of essential oil active compounds (BEO) to improve rumen fermentation and general dairy cow performance. First, the main active components of the BEO were identified and quantified. Then, the in vitro experiment was conducted using 24 h batch incubation of buffered rumen fluid. The BEO was added at 0, 20, 100, 200, 600, and 1000 mg/l of culture fluid, with substrate containing forage and concentrate at a ratio of 60:40 dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrations of 600 and 1000 mg/l decreased (P < 0.05) methane production per dry matter incubated (DMi) by 5.7% and 17.1%, respectively, and a concentration of 1000 mg/l decreased ammonia-N concentration by 10.0%. However, these reductions were accompanied by a decrease (P < 0.05) in apparent dry matter disappearance (aDMd), and lowered (P < 0.05) the net production of volatile fatty acids (nVFA) indicating, that there were no beneficial selective inhibitory properties of BEO supplementation. For the in vivo experiment, 30 lactating Holstein cows (two primiparous and 28 multiparous) in mid-lactation were randomly assigned to two treatments. During a 15 week period, cows in the control group (CON; n=15) were fed the basal diet with no additive, and cows in the other group (BEO; n=15) received the same diet supplemented with 1.2 g/cow/ d BEO. Addition of BEO did not affect (P=0.218) DM intake and milk yield (P=0.102). For feed efficiency (P=0.047) and body weight (P=0.014), the treatment×time interactions were observed, with cows fed BEO having a lower average feed efficiency and a higher average body weight. BEO treatment tended to decrease the proportion of milk fat (P=0.072), without affecting other milk quality parameters. BEO supplemented cows had lower VFA concentrations in rumen fluid (P=0.006), and correspondingly, pH values were higher (P=0.018). No differences were detected between the treatments for proportions of individual VFA and ammonia-N concentration. The responses of dairy cows on BEO were more pronounced after the 5th week of supplementation. This indicates the necessity of a longer adaptation period than commonly used in studies evaluating the effects of essential oils (EO). Due to energetic shift toward body weight gain additional attention should be paid to the systemic effects of EO. Generally, results from this study suggest that mid-lactation dairy cows did not benefit from being supplemented with BEO.
The Scientific Committee for Animal Nutrition was established in 2002 as an advisory body of the food safety coordination group. Its main task is to prepare scientific studies, offer expert views, and prepare proposals for measures ensuring safety throughout the entire chain of food and feed production.
The aim of the project is to offer pig breeders the practical possibilities of mitigating or eliminating the operational and economic impacts of the restriction and prohibition of surgical castration of the piglets and introducing to farmers validated alternatives to the production of pancakes corresponding to the current trend in a number of European Union countries. The project should provide the user with the knowledge, facts and methodologies leading to a successful adaptation to the changing conditions of the European pigmeat market related to restrictions in the field of surgical castration of the male piglets.
Creating effective tools for selecting individuals into supported populations of genetic resources (GR)based on a combination of available genealogical information and molecular-genetic methods to increase efficiency of the National program for genetic resources to support implementation of the EU Common Agricultural Policy in the field of agro-biodiversity Development of methodology for the selection of individuals for the cryoprogram Description of optimal methodology for semen collection, cryopreseand its own insemination for selected animals’ species engaged into the genetic resource Developing a new method of qualitative evaluation of sperm Practical testing of the new procedure of interspecific ICSI and verification of its utilization
The aim of the present project is to create a reference population of animals needed for a reliable estimation of genomic breeding values (GEPH) of traits. Subsequently, to develop a complex system, methods and computer programs for the evaluation of molecular-genetic markers and to determine the GEPH for population of pigs included into the Czech National Breeding Program. Another objective is to evaluate the genetic variability of population based on molecular-genetic information and the possibility to apply the genomic selection for health and meat quality traits of pigs.
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